Multiple (alternate) Graphic Representations - Notes



The MARC record contains 880 fields that represent another field in the same record in a different script. These 880s don’t represent a variant of the field; instead they are equivalent to the field to which they are linked. These equivalent fields are considered “alternate graphic representation” in the MARC standard, and FOLIO needs to incorporate the different scripts to support a variety of use cases.

Supporting documentation:

Use cases

  • Acquisitions:

    • Ordering: When placing an order for a title from a vendor in a region that uses the scripts, it is easiest to order that title using the native script

    • Receiving: When receiving a title, it is easier for a reader of that script to be able to identify the title by the script and not have to scan through variant titles

  • Searching:

    • Users who are readers in one script may not be accustomed to reading the transliterated representation so they won’t be able to find what they are looking for

    • For deduplication exercises, the original script is more reliable than the transliterated version

  • Patron discovery:

    • For similar use cases as staff search above. aids in the ability to discover titles by more than one script. This becomes especially important for discovery layers that have a global user base.







For script identification, do we just consider the Unicode value? Or do we allow the user to enter the script in the instance and NOT map it from the 880 $6?

I lean toward keeping the Instance data “locked” when source = MARC but would like this confirmed (-Laura)


List of elements/fields we want to consider

 see table on slide 6


Do we need to consider unlinked 880s?



Are we considering the concept of a “primary” field?

 I think we need to, ideally would be configurable at tenant level (-Laura)


Did we decide on which script would be shown in the results list - (I know that each would be indexed and searchable as the same element)?

Outstanding question to bring back to MM--I think it’s best to show both/all, with the “primary” one displaying first and being the sort value (-Laura)


For configuring the “primary” field - does this mean setting whether an 880 value or the other tag (such as 245) should be the preferred form? - this may be complicated by the ability to add multiple 880 links.



Do we need to capture the orientation?



For source = MARC, should we only map scripts from the 880$6 when the code matches the Unicode code?

  • For example - Arabic:

    • MARC-8 coded character set escape sequences = (3

    • Unicode = arab

  • Would we leave the script undefined for the MARC-8 coded character, but identify the script as “Arabic” if we find the Unicode version?


Would configuration of primary script occur for all fields, or per field? For example, is a different script the primary for Resource title vs Contributor? Or would one script be considered the primary script for all fields?



Do we want “graphical” instead of “graphic” as listed in the standard?



When configuring the primary script, is this a question of transliterated vs the vernacular script? Or a specific script to prefer if available, else use the tag that is linked from the 880?





Related Jira



Related Jira


The Instance should capture data on multiple graphic representations (data in multiple scripts)




FOLIO source Instances should have the ability to enter an element in a script, identify the corresponding field for which it is equivalent, and identify the script itself




For MARC source Instances, this data should be mapped from 880 fields




Multiple scripts should be able to be paired with other fields

For example, the system needs to be able to correlate multiple scripts to the resource title field.



 Fields we need to support:

  • Contributor

  • Resource title

  • Index title

  • Alternative title(s)

  • Edition

  • Preceding title

  • Succeeding title

  • Uniform title

  • Series statement

  • Publisher

  • Place

  • Physical description

  • Instance notes

  • Child instances

  • Parent instances

  • Other related titles




Need to support tenant-level configuration of which script is considered the primary script

*For ECS, would need to be configurable at the member tenant level


Supported fields detail

FOLIO property

Associated MARC fields

FOLIO property

Associated MARC fields


100, 110, 111, 700, 710, 711

Resource title


Index title

245 adjusted according to 2nd indicator

Alternative title(s)

246, 247, 730, 740



Preceding title


Succeeding title


Uniform title

130, 240

Series statement

130, 240





Physical description


Instance notes


Parent instances


Other related titles (don’t currently capture)



  • Representation of another field in the same record in a different script

    • “Linked” to another field via $6

      • Subfield $6 may contain the tag number of an associated field, an occurrence number, a code that identifies the first script encountered in a left-to-right scan of the field, and an indication that the orientation for a display of the field data is right-to-left.

        • Linking tag & occurrence number: Tag number + two digit occurrence number

          • Occurrence number = Link to two digit number in corresponding field

          • Occurrence number != a sequence of fields in the record

        • Script identification code: After Linking Tag + Occurrence number, the script identification code, if present, will follow a slash ( / )

          • Unicode environment:

        • Orientation code: In 880, contents always recorded in left-right orientation. When script is right-to left, an “r” will follow a slash ( / ) AFTER the script identification code

      • Examples:

        • Q: in9132754

          • Linking: 490 to 880

          • Occurrence number: 04

          • Script identification code: $1 = Chinese

            • We will probably ignore this, regardless of the environment because it groups a lot of scripts together

          • Orientation: not present, left to right orientation

          • image-20240423-173948.png

        • Q: in1750790

          • Linking: 245 to 880

          • Occurrence number: 02

          • Script identification code: (3 = Arabic (In Unicode = arab)

          • Orientation: /r (Right to left)

          • image-20240423-174229.png
        • Q: in10738658

          • Linking: 111 to 880

          • Occurrence number: 01

          • Script identification code: not present

          • Orientation: not present, left-right orientation

        • Q: in7892721

          • Linking: 245 to 880

          • Occurrence number: “01”

          • Script identification code = (N = Cyrillic (UTF-8, if Unicode, would be “Cyrl”)

          • Orientation code: not present, left to right orientation